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Homér

Homer is the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek kingdoms. It focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey focuses on the ten-year journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey. Modern scholars consider these accounts legendary.The Homeric Question – concerning by whom, when, where and under what circumstances the Iliad and Odyssey were composed – continues to be debated. Broadly speaking, modern scholarly opinion falls into two groups. One holds that most of the Iliad and the Odyssey are the works of a single poet of genius. The other considers the Homeric poems to be the result of a process of working and reworking by many contributors, and that "Homer" is best seen as a label for an entire tradition. It is generally accepted that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC.The poems are in Homeric Greek, also known as Epic Greek, a literary language which shows a mixture of features of the Ionic and Aeolic dialects from different centuries; the predominant influence is Eastern Ionic. Most researchers believe that the poems were originally transmitted orally. From antiquity until the present day, the influence of Homeric epic on Western civilization has been great, inspiring many of its most famous works of literature, music, art and film. The Homeric epics were the greatest influence on ancient Greek culture and education; to Plato, Homer was simply the one who "has taught Greece" – ten Hellada pepaideuken.

Works

„Everything is more beautiful because we are doomed. You will never be more lovelier than you are now. We will never be here again.“

—  Homér, Iliad

Variant: Any moment might be our last. Everything is more beautiful because we're doomed. You will never be lovelier than you are now. We will never be here again.
Source: The Iliad

„Few sons, indeed, are like their fathers.
Generally they are worse; but just a few are better.“

—  Homér, The Odyssey (Cowper)

II. 276–277 (tr. E. V. Rieu).
Odyssey (c. 725 BC)
Original: (el) Παῦροι γάρ τοι παῖδες ὁμοῖοι πατρὶ πέλονται,
οἱ πλέονες κακίους, παῦροι δέ τε πατρὸς ἀρείους.
Source: The Odyssey

„Of all that breathes and crawls across the earth,
our mother earth breeds nothing feebler than a man.“

—  Homér, Iliad

XVIII. 130–131 (tr. Robert Fagles). Cf. Iliad, XVII. 446–447.
Samuel Butler's translation:
: Man is the vainest of all creatures that have their being upon earth.
Robert Fitzgerald's translation:
: Of mortal creatures, all that breathe and move,
earth bears none frailer than mankind.
Odyssey (c. 725 BC)
Original: (el) Οὐδὲν ἀκιδνότερον γαῖα τρέφει ἀνθρώποιο
πάντων, ὅσσα τε γαῖαν ἔπι πνείει τε καὶ ἕρπει.
Variant: Of all creatures that breathe and move upon the earth, nothing is bred that is weaker than man.
Source: The Iliad

„Better to flee from death than feel its grip.“

—  Homér, Iliad

XIV. 80–81 (tr. Robert Fagles).
Richmond Lattimore's translation:
: There is no shame in running, even by night, from disaster.
The man does better who runs from disaster than he who is caught by it.
Iliad (c. 750 BC)
Original: (el) Οὐ γάρ τις νέμεσις φυγέειν κακόν, οὐδ' ἀνὰ νύκτα.
βέλτερον ὃς φεύγων προφύγῃ κακὸν ἠὲ ἁλώῃ.
Context: No shame in running,
fleeing disaster, even in pitch darkness.
Better to flee from death than feel its grip.

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„A physician is worth more than several other men put together, for he can cut out arrows and spread healing herbs.“

—  Homér, Iliad

XI. 514–515 (tr. Samuel Butler).
Iliad (c. 750 BC)
Original: (el) Ἰητρὸς γὰρ ἀνὴρ πολλῶν ἀντάξιος ἄλλων
ἰούς τ' ἐκτάμνειν ἐπί τ' ἤπια φάρμακα πάσσειν.

„For a friend with an understanding heart is worth no less than a brother.“

—  Homér, The Odyssey (Cowper)

VIII. 585–586 (tr. G. H. Palmer).
Odyssey (c. 725 BC)
Original: (el) Ἐπεὶ οὐ μέν τι κασιγνήτοιο χερείων
γίνεται, ὅς κεν ἑταῖρος ἐὼν πεπνυμένα εἰδῇ.
Source: The Odyssey

„Who dares think one thing, and another tell,
My heart detests him as the gates of hell.“

—  Homér, Iliad

IX. 312–313 (tr. Alexander Pope).
A. H. Chase and W. G. Perry, Jr.'s translation:
: Hateful to me as the gates of Hades is the man who hides one thing in his heart and speaks another.
Iliad (c. 750 BC)
Original: (el) Ἐχθρὸς γάρ μοι κεῖνος ὁμῶς Ἀΐδαο πύλῃσιν
ὅς χ' ἕτερον μὲν κεύθῃ ἐνὶ φρεσίν, ἄλλο δὲ εἴπῃ.
Source: The Iliad

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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