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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Date de naissance: 27. août 1770
Date de décès: 14. novembre 1831
Autres noms: Георг Вильгельм Фридрих Гегель

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [ˈɡeːɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡl̩], né le 27 août 1770 à Stuttgart et mort le 14 novembre 1831 à Berlin, est un philosophe allemand.

Son œuvre, postérieure à celle de Emmanuel Kant, appartient à l'idéalisme allemand et a eu une influence décisive sur l'ensemble de la philosophie contemporaine.

Hegel enseigne la philosophie sous la forme d'un système unissant tous les savoirs suivant une logique dialectique. Le système est présenté comme une « phénoménologie de l'esprit » puis comme une « encyclopédie des sciences philosophiques », titres de deux de ses ouvrages, et englobe l'ensemble des domaines philosophiques, dont la métaphysique et l'ontologie, la philosophie de l'art et de la religion, la philosophie de la nature, la philosophie de l'histoire, la philosophie morale et politique ou la philosophie du droit.

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Philosophie de l'esprit
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Esthétique ou philosophie de l'art
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Phénoménologie de l'esprit
Phénoménologie de l'esprit
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Citations Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

„Rien de grand ne s'est produit dans le monde sans passion.“

—  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

La Philosophie de l'histoire, Cours 1822-1831
Variante: rien de grand dans le monde ne s'est accomplis sans passion

„L’histoire n’est pas le terrain du bonheur; car les périodes de bonheur sont pour l’histoire des pages vides.“

—  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

La Philosophie de l'histoire, Cours 1822-1831
Variante: L'histoire n'est pas un lieu de félicité. Les périodes de bonheur y sont ses pages blanches.

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„What experience and history teach is this — that nations and governments have never learned anything from history, or acted upon any lessons they might have drawn from it.“

—  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, livre Lectures on the Philosophy of History

Introduction, as translated by H. B. Nisbet (1975)
Variant translation: What experience and history teach is this — that people and governments never have learned anything from history, or acted on principles deduced from it.
Pragmatical (didactic) reflections, though in their nature decidedly abstract, are truly and indefeasibly of the Present, and quicken the annals of the dead Past with the life of to-day. Whether, indeed, such reflections are truly interesting and enlivening, depends on the writer's own spirit. Moral reflections must here be specially noticed, the moral teaching expected from history; which latter has not unfrequently been treated with a direct view to the former. It may be allowed that examples of virtue elevate the soul, and are applicable in the moral instruction of children for impressing excellence upon their minds. But the destinies of peoples and states, their interests, relations, and the complicated tissue of their affairs, present quite another field. Rulers, Statesmen, Nations, are wont to be emphatically commended to the teaching which experience offers in history. But what experience and history teach is this, that peoples and governments never have learned anything from history, or acted on principles deduced from it. Each period is involved in such peculiar circumstances, exhibits a condition of things so strictly idiosyncratic, that its conduct must be regulated by considerations connected with itself, and itself alone. Amid the pressure of great events, a general principle gives no help. It is useless to revert to similar circumstances in the Past. The pallid shades of memory struggle in vain with the life and freedom of the Present.
Lectures on the History of History Vol 1 p. 6 John Sibree translation (1857), 1914
Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1832), Volume 1

„Nothing great in the world was accomplished without passion.“

—  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, livre Lectures on the Philosophy of History

Often abbreviated to: Nothing great in the World has been accomplished without passion.
Variant translation: We may affirm absolutely that nothing great in the world has ever been accomplished without enthusiasm.
Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1832), Volume 1
Variante: We may affirm absolutely that nothing great in the world has been accomplished without passion.
Contexte: We assert then that nothing has been accomplished without interest on the part of the actors; and — if interest be called passion, inasmuch as the whole individuality, to the neglect of all other actual or possible interests and claims, is devoted to an object with every fibre of volition, concentrating all its desires and powers upon it — we may affirm absolutely that nothing great in the World has been accomplished without passion.

„The Democratical State is not Patriarchal“

—  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, livre Lectures on the Philosophy of History

Lectures on the History of History Vol 1 p. 261 John Sibree translation (1857), 1914
Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1832), Volume 1
Contexte: The Democratical State is not Patriarchal, does not rest on a still unreflecting, undeveloped confidence, but implies laws, with the consciousness of their being founded on an equitable and moral basis, and the recognition of these laws as positive. At the time of the Kings, no political life had as yet made its appearance in Hellas; there are, therefore, only slight traces of Legislation. But in the interval from the Trojan War till near the time of Cyrus, its necessity was felt. The first Lawgivers are known under the name of The Seven Sages, a title which at that time did not imply any such character as that of the Sophists teachers of wisdom, designedly [and systematically] proclaiming the Bight and True but merely thinking men, whose thinking stopped short of Science, properly so called. They were practical politicians; the good counsels which two of them Thales of Miletus and Bias of Priene gave to the Ionian cities, have been already mentioned. Thus Solon was commissioned by the Athenians to give them laws, as those then in operation no longer sufficed. Solon gave the Athenians a constitution by which all obtained equal rights, yet not so as to render the Democracy a quite abstract one. The main point in Democracy is moral disposition. Virtue is the basis of Democracy, remarks Montesquieu; and this sentiment is as important as it is true in reference to the idea of Democracy commonly entertained. The Substance, [the Principle] of Justice, the common weal, the general interest, is the main consideration; but it is so only as Custom, in the form of Objective Will, so that morality properly so called subjective conviction and intention has not yet manifested itself. Law exists, and is in point of substance, the Law of Freedom, rational [in its form and purport, ] and valid because it is Law, i. e. without ulterior sanction. As in Beauty the Natural element its sensuous coefficient remains, so also in this customary morality, laws assume the form of a necessity of Nature.

„It is a matter of perfect indifference where a thing originated; the only question is: "Is it true in and for itself?"“

—  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, livre Lectures on the Philosophy of History

Pt. III, sec. 3, ch. 2 Lectures on the History of History Vol 1 p. 344 John Sibree translation (1857), 1914
Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1832), Volume 1
Contexte: It is a matter of perfect indifference where a thing originated; the only question is: "Is it true in and for itself?" Many think that by pronouncing a doctrine to be Neo-Platonic, they have ipso facto banished it from Christianity. Whether a Christian doctrine stands exactly thus or thus in the Bible, the point to which the exegetical scholars of modern times devote all their attention is not the only question. The Letter kills, the Spirit makes alive: this they say themselves, yet pervert the sentiment by taking the Understanding for the Spirit.

„To comprehend what is, is the task of philosophy: and what is is Reason.“

—  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Works, VII, 17.
Contexte: The great thing however is, in the show of the temporal and the transient to recognize the substance which is immanent and the eternal which is present. For the work of Reason (which is synonymous with the Idea) when considered in its own actuality, is to simultaneously enter external existence and emerge with an infinite wealth of forms, phenomena and phases — a multiplicity that envelops its essential rational kernel with a motley outer rind with which our ordinary consciousness is earliest at home. It is this rind that the Concept must penetrate before Reason can find its own inward pulse and feel it still beating even in the outward phases. But this infinite variety of circumstances which is formed in this element of externality by the light of the rational essence shining in it — all this infinite material, with its regulatory laws — is not the object of philosophy.... To comprehend what is, is the task of philosophy: and what is is Reason.

„What is now often said, that man need not know God, and may yet have the knowledge of this relation, is false. Since God is the First, He determines the relation, and therefore in order to know what is the truth of the relation, man must know God.“

—  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, livre Lectures on the Philosophy of History

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Lectures on the Philosophy of History Vol 2 1837 translated by ES Haldane and Francis H. Simson first translated 1894 p. 386-387
Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1832), Volume 2
Contexte: That condition which man terms the life of man in unity with nature, and in which man meets with God in nature because he finds his satisfaction there, has ceased to exist. The unity of man with the world is for this end broken, that it may be restored in a higher unity, that the world, as an intelligible world, may be received into God. The relation of man to God thereby reveals itself in the way provided for our salvation in worship, but more particularly it likewise shows itself in Philosophy; and that with the express consciousness of the aim that the individual should render himself capable of belonging to this intelligible world. The manner in which man represents to himself his relation to God is more particularly determined by the manner in which man represents to himself God. What is now often said, that man need not know God, and may yet have the knowledge of this relation, is false. Since God is the First, He determines the relation, and therefore in order to know what is the truth of the relation, man must know God. Since therefore thought goes so far as to deny the natural, what we are now concerned with is not to seek truth in any existing mode, but from our inner Being to go forth again to a true objective, which derives its determination from the intrinsic nature of thought.

„That man should think of God as nothingness must at first sight seem astonishing“

—  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, Lectures on the philosophy of religion, together with a work on the proofs of the existence of God. Vol 2 Translated from the 2d German ed. 1895 Ebenezer Brown Speirs 1854-1900, and J Burdon Sanderson p. 51
Lectures on Philosophy of Religion, Volume 2
Contexte: That man should think of God as nothingness must at first sight seem astonishing, must appear to us a most peculiar idea. But, considered more closely, this determination means that God is absolutely nothing determined. He is the Undetermined; no determinateness of any kind pertains to God; He is the Infinite. This is equivalent to saying that God is the negation of all particularity.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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