Grace Hopper cytaty

Grace Hopper Fotografia
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Grace Hopper

Data urodzenia: 9. Grudzień 1906
Data zgonu: 1. Styczeń 1992

Grace Murray Hopper, z d. Grace Brewster Murray – amerykańska pionierka informatyki, przez szereg lat służyła w United States Navy, w 1986 przeszła w stan spoczynku w stopniu kontradmirała .

W wieku 17 lat rozpoczęła naukę w Vassar College i w 1928 roku uzyskała licencjat z matematyki. Następnie studiowała na Uniwersytecie Yale, gdzie zdobyła zarówno tytuł magistra jak i doktora matematyki , by potem powrócić w Vassar College i prowadzić tam wykłady.

W 1943 r. dołączyła do korpusu rezerwy Marynarki Wojennej Stanów Zjednoczonych i otrzymała stanowisko w Biurze Projektu Wyliczeń Nawigacyjnych działającym przy Uniwersytecie Harvarda.

Współpracowała w latach II wojny światowej i później przy opracowaniu translatorów i pierwszych języków programowania, m.in. języka Cobol.

Grace Hopper była obok Richarda Miltona Blocha i Roberta Campbella jedną z programistek maszyny Harvard Mark I, zasłynęła też spopularyzowaniem pojęcia bug w słownictwie informatycznym . Podczas pracy nad komputerem Mark II w Harvardzie, ćma dostała się do wnętrza komputera i spowodowała awarię w jego funkcjonowaniu. Pracownicy naprawę tej usterki określili jako debugging, czyli odpluskwianie.

W 1949 r. przeniosła się do firmy komputerowej Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation w Filadelfii, gdzie pomagała zaprojektować pierwszy cyfrowy komputer przeznaczony do szerokich zastosowań komercyjnych.

W 1977 r. objęła funkcję specjalnego doradcy przy wiceadmirale stojącym na czele Dowództwa ds. Automatyzacji Marynarki Wojennej.

Fotografia: James S. Davis, United States Navy / Public domain

Cytaty Grace Hopper

„Stojący w porcie statek jest bezpieczny, ale statków nie buduje się po to aby stały w portach.“

—  Grace Hopper

A ship in port is safe; but that is not what ships are built for. (ang.)

„Najlepszą rzeczą w standardach jest to, że jest z czego wybierać.“

—  Grace Hopper

The wonderful thing about standards is, that there are so many of them to choose from. (ang.)

„Najbardziej niebezpiecznym wyrażeniem jest „zawsze to robiliśmy w ten sposób.”“

—  Grace Hopper

The most dangerous phrase in the language is, 'We've always done it this way. (ang.)

„Łatwiej jest po fakcie błagać o wybaczenie niż przed faktem dostać na coś pozwolenie.“

—  Grace Hopper

It's easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission. (ang.)
Źródło: Okładka http://www.chips.navy.mil/links/grace_hopper/86.gif magazynu amerykańskiej marynarki wojennej Chips Ahoy

„Życie przed II wojną światową było proste. Po wojnie zaczęliśmy tworzyć systemy.“

—  Grace Hopper

Life was simple before World War II. After that, we had systems. (ang.)
Źródło: Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) Newsletter, marzec/kwiecień 1987, nr 167

„Nikt mi nie chciał uwierzyć, że napisałam kompilator i nikt nie był nim zainteresowany. Powiedziano mi, że komputery potrafią tylko liczyć.“

—  Grace Hopper

Nobody believed that I had a running compiler and nobody would touch it. They told me, computers could only do arithmetic. (ang.)

„If they put you down somewhere with nothing to do, go to sleep — you don't know when you'll get any more.“

—  Grace Hopper

Grace Hopper on Late Night with David Letterman (2 October 1986) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-vcErOPofQ
Kontekst: There's something you learn in your first boot-camp, or training camp: If they put you down somewhere with nothing to do, go to sleep — you don't know when you'll get any more.

„We must include in any language with which we hope to describe complex data-processing situations the capability for describing data.“

—  Grace Hopper

As quoted in Management and the Computer of the Future (1962) by Sloan School of Management, p. 273
Kontekst: We must include in any language with which we hope to describe complex data-processing situations the capability for describing data. We must also include a mechanism for determining the priorities to be applied to the data. These priorities are not fixed and are indicated in many cases by the data.
Thus we must have a language and a structure that will take care of the data descriptions and priorities, as well as the operations we wish to perform. If we think seriously about these problems, we find that we cannot work with procedures alone, since they are sequential. We need to define the problem instead of the procedures. The Language Structures Group of the Codasyl Committee has been studying the structure of languages that can be used to describe data-processing problems. The Group started out by trying to design a language for stating procedures, but soon discovered that what was really required was a description of the data and a statement of the relationships between the data sets. The Group has since begun writing an algebra of processes, the background for a theory of data processing.
Clearly, we must break away from the sequential and not limit the computers. We must state definitions and provide for priorities and descriptions of data. We must state relationships, not procedures.

„We must state relationships, not procedures.“

—  Grace Hopper

As quoted in Management and the Computer of the Future (1962) by Sloan School of Management, p. 273
Kontekst: We must include in any language with which we hope to describe complex data-processing situations the capability for describing data. We must also include a mechanism for determining the priorities to be applied to the data. These priorities are not fixed and are indicated in many cases by the data.
Thus we must have a language and a structure that will take care of the data descriptions and priorities, as well as the operations we wish to perform. If we think seriously about these problems, we find that we cannot work with procedures alone, since they are sequential. We need to define the problem instead of the procedures. The Language Structures Group of the Codasyl Committee has been studying the structure of languages that can be used to describe data-processing problems. The Group started out by trying to design a language for stating procedures, but soon discovered that what was really required was a description of the data and a statement of the relationships between the data sets. The Group has since begun writing an algebra of processes, the background for a theory of data processing.
Clearly, we must break away from the sequential and not limit the computers. We must state definitions and provide for priorities and descriptions of data. We must state relationships, not procedures.

„Please cut off a nanosecond and send it over to me.“

—  Grace Hopper

On demonstrating a billionth of a second of electricity travel with a piece of wire, in an interview on 60 Minutes (24 August 1986)
Kontekst: In total desperation, I called over to the engineering building, and I said, "Please cut off a nanosecond and send it over to me."

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„A human must turn information into intelligence or knowledge. We've tended to forget that no computer will ever ask a new question.“

—  Grace Hopper

Kontekst: We're flooding people with information. We need to feed it through a processor. A human must turn information into intelligence or knowledge. We've tended to forget that no computer will ever ask a new question.

„The Group started out by trying to design a language for stating procedures, but soon discovered that what was really required was a description of the data and a statement of the relationships between the data sets.“

—  Grace Hopper

As quoted in Management and the Computer of the Future (1962) by Sloan School of Management, p. 273
Kontekst: We must include in any language with which we hope to describe complex data-processing situations the capability for describing data. We must also include a mechanism for determining the priorities to be applied to the data. These priorities are not fixed and are indicated in many cases by the data.
Thus we must have a language and a structure that will take care of the data descriptions and priorities, as well as the operations we wish to perform. If we think seriously about these problems, we find that we cannot work with procedures alone, since they are sequential. We need to define the problem instead of the procedures. The Language Structures Group of the Codasyl Committee has been studying the structure of languages that can be used to describe data-processing problems. The Group started out by trying to design a language for stating procedures, but soon discovered that what was really required was a description of the data and a statement of the relationships between the data sets. The Group has since begun writing an algebra of processes, the background for a theory of data processing.
Clearly, we must break away from the sequential and not limit the computers. We must state definitions and provide for priorities and descriptions of data. We must state relationships, not procedures.

„You manage things, you lead people. We went overboard on management and forgot about leadership.“

—  Grace Hopper

Kontekst: You manage things, you lead people. We went overboard on management and forgot about leadership. It might help if we ran the MBAs out of Washington.

„These priorities are not fixed and are indicated in many cases by the data.
Thus we must have a language and a structure that will take care of the data descriptions and priorities, as well as the operations we wish to perform.“

—  Grace Hopper

As quoted in Management and the Computer of the Future (1962) by Sloan School of Management, p. 273
Kontekst: We must include in any language with which we hope to describe complex data-processing situations the capability for describing data. We must also include a mechanism for determining the priorities to be applied to the data. These priorities are not fixed and are indicated in many cases by the data.
Thus we must have a language and a structure that will take care of the data descriptions and priorities, as well as the operations we wish to perform. If we think seriously about these problems, we find that we cannot work with procedures alone, since they are sequential. We need to define the problem instead of the procedures. The Language Structures Group of the Codasyl Committee has been studying the structure of languages that can be used to describe data-processing problems. The Group started out by trying to design a language for stating procedures, but soon discovered that what was really required was a description of the data and a statement of the relationships between the data sets. The Group has since begun writing an algebra of processes, the background for a theory of data processing.
Clearly, we must break away from the sequential and not limit the computers. We must state definitions and provide for priorities and descriptions of data. We must state relationships, not procedures.

„A ship in port is safe; but that is not what ships are built for. Sail out to sea and do new things.“

—  Grace Hopper

This saying appears to be due to John Augustus Shedd; it was quoted in "Grace Hopper : The Youthful Teacher of Us All" by Henry S. Tropp in Abacus Vol. 2, Issue 1 (Fall 1984) ISSN 0724-6722 . She did repeat this saying on multiple occasions, but she called it "a motto that has stuck with me" and did not claim coinage. Additional variations and citations may be found at Quote Investigator http://quoteinvestigator.com/2013/12/09/safe-harbor/
Misattributed

„At the end of about a week, I called back and said, "I need something to compare this to. Could I please have a microsecond?"“

—  Grace Hopper

On demonstrating a millionth of a second of electricity travel with a piece of wire, in an interview on 60 Minutes (24 August 1986)

„To me programming is more than an important practical art. It is also a gigantic undertaking in the foundations of knowledge.“

—  Grace Hopper

David Sayre, while in a panel discussion with Hopper, as quoted in Management and the Computer of the Future (1962) by Sloan School of Management, p. 277
Misattributed

„From then on, when anything went wrong with a computer, we said it had bugs in it.“

—  Grace Hopper

On the removal of a 2-inch-long moth from the Harvard Mark II experimental computer at Harvard in 1947, as quoted in Time (16 April 1984). Note that the term "bug" was in use by people in several technical disciplines long before that; Thomas Edison used the term, and it was common AT&T parlance in the 1920s to refer to bugs in the wires. Hopper is credited with popularizing the term's use in the computing field.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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