Muhammad Ali Jinnah citations

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Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Date de naissance: 25. décembre 1876
Date de décès: 11. septembre 1948

Muhammad Ali Jinnah était un avocat et un homme politique connu comme le fondateur du Pakistan. Il est la figure emblématique de la Ligue musulmane qu'il rejoint en 1913 et dirige lors de l'indépendance du Pakistan le 14 août 1947. Il devient le premier gouverneur général du pays, de l'indépendance à sa mort. Il est connu au Pakistan sous le nom de Baba Quaid-e-Azam et Baba-e-Qaum et le jour de sa naissance est un jour férié.

Né à Karachi, Jinnah suivit des études de droit au Lincoln's Inn de Londres avant de devenir un personnage influent du Congrès national indien dans les deux premières décennies du XXe siècle. Au début de sa carrière politique, Jinnah défendit l'unité hindoue-musulmane et aida à la rédaction du pacte de Lucknow de 1916 entre le Congrès et la Ligue musulmane, un parti dont il était également devenu un membre important. Il devint l'un des principaux chefs de la All-India Home Rule League et proposa une réforme constitutionnelle pour garantir les droits politiques des musulmans si l'Inde britannique obtenait son indépendance. Jinnah quitta néanmoins le Congrès en 1920 lorsque ce dernier, emmené par Mohandas Gandhi décida de mener une campagne de Satyagraha ou résistance non violente contre le pouvoir britannique.

En 1940, Jinnah en était venu à la conclusion que les musulmans devraient avoir leur propre État et la Ligue musulmane vota la résolution de Lahore demandant une nation séparée. Durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, la Ligue se renforça tandis que les chefs du Congrès étaient emprisonnés et lors des élections organisées peu après la guerre, elle remporta la plupart des sièges réservés aux musulmans. Le Congrès et la Ligue ne parvinrent cependant pas à un accord de partage du pouvoir dans une Inde unie et les deux partis acceptèrent la solution de deux États : l'Inde à majorité hindoue et un pays à majorité musulmane qui fut appelé Pakistan.

En tant que premier gouverneur général du Pakistan, Jinnah œuvra à la mise en place du gouvernement et des politiques de la nouvelle nation et il aida les millions de réfugiés musulmans qui avaient quitté l'Inde après la partition des Indes en supervisant personnellement la création de camps de réfugiés. Jinnah mourut à l'âge de 71 ans en septembre 1948 un an juste après la création du Pakistan. Il reste un personnage très respecté au Pakistan même si les opinions sont plus partagées en Inde. Selon son biographe, Stanley Wolpert, il reste le plus grand dirigeant du Pakistan. Wikipedia

Citations Muhammad Ali Jinnah

„I have always maintained that no nation can ever be worthy of its existence that cannot take its women along with the men. No struggle can ever succeed without women participating side by side with men.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Speech at Islamia College for women (25 March 1940)
Contexte: I have always maintained that no nation can ever be worthy of its existence that cannot take its women along with the men. No struggle can ever succeed without women participating side by side with men. There are two powers in the world; one is the sword and the other is the pen. There is a great competition and rivalry between the two. There is a third power stronger than both, that of the women.

„To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Presidential Address to All India Muslim League's Session on March 22, 1940
Contexte: It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religions in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders, and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality, and this misconception of one Indian nation has troubles and will lead India to destruction if we fail to revise our notions in time. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, litterateurs. They neither intermarry nor interdine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Mussalmans (Muslims) derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes, and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other and, likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built for the government of such a state.

„Even now there are some States in existence where there are discriminations made and bars imposed against a particular class. Thank God, we are not starting in those days.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Address to the Constituent Assembly (1947)
Contexte: You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place or worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed — that has nothing to do with the business of the State. As you know, history shows that in England, conditions, some time ago, were much worse than those prevailing in India today. The Roman Catholics and the Protestants persecuted each other. Even now there are some States in existence where there are discriminations made and bars imposed against a particular class. Thank God, we are not starting in those days. We are starting in the days where there is no discrimination, no distinction between one community and another, no discrimination between one caste or creed and another. We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State.

„We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Address to the Constituent Assembly (1947)
Contexte: You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place or worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed — that has nothing to do with the business of the State. As you know, history shows that in England, conditions, some time ago, were much worse than those prevailing in India today. The Roman Catholics and the Protestants persecuted each other. Even now there are some States in existence where there are discriminations made and bars imposed against a particular class. Thank God, we are not starting in those days. We are starting in the days where there is no discrimination, no distinction between one community and another, no discrimination between one caste or creed and another. We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State.

„The Quran is the general code for the Muslims,“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Eid-ul-Fitar message in September 1945
Contexte: The Quran is the general code for the Muslims, a religious, social, civil, commercial, military, judicial, criminal and penal code. It regulates every thing, from the ceremonies of religion to those of daily life, from the salvation of the soul to the health of the body, from the rights of all to those of each individual from morality to crime; from punishment here to that in the life to come, and our Holy Prophet Mohammad (Peace by upon Him) has enjoined on us that every Musalman should posses a copy of the Quran and be his own priest. Therefore, Islam is not merely confined to the spiritual tenets and doctrines or ritual and ceremonies. It is a complete code regulating the whole Muslim society, every department of life, collective and individual.

„The first and the foremost thing that I would like to emphasize is this — remember that you are now a sovereign legislative body and you have got all the powers. It, therefore, places on you the gravest responsibility as to how you should take your decisions.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Address to the Constituent Assembly (1947)
Contexte: The first and the foremost thing that I would like to emphasize is this — remember that you are now a sovereign legislative body and you have got all the powers. It, therefore, places on you the gravest responsibility as to how you should take your decisions. The first observation that I would like to make is this: You will no doubt agree with me that the first duty of a government is to maintain law and order, so that the life, property and religious beliefs of its subjects are fully protected by the State.

„Hindus and Mussalmans (Muslims) derive their inspiration from different sources of history“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Presidential Address to All India Muslim League's Session on March 22, 1940
Contexte: It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religions in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders, and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality, and this misconception of one Indian nation has troubles and will lead India to destruction if we fail to revise our notions in time. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, litterateurs. They neither intermarry nor interdine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Mussalmans (Muslims) derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes, and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other and, likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built for the government of such a state.

„Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, litterateurs“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Presidential Address to All India Muslim League's Session on March 22, 1940
Contexte: It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religions in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders, and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality, and this misconception of one Indian nation has troubles and will lead India to destruction if we fail to revise our notions in time. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, litterateurs. They neither intermarry nor interdine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Mussalmans (Muslims) derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes, and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other and, likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built for the government of such a state.

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„The prosperity and advancement of a nation depend upon its intelligentsia“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Speech (24 December 1940), published in Some Recent Speeches and Writings of Mr. Jinnah (1947), Vol. 1
Message on Pakistan Day, issued from Delhi (23 March 1943)
Contexte: The prosperity and advancement of a nation depend upon its intelligentsia, and Muslim India is looking forward to her young generation and education classes to give a bold lead for our guidance and a brilliant record of historical achievements and traditions.

„Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other and, likewise,“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Presidential Address to All India Muslim League's Session on March 22, 1940
Contexte: It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religions in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders, and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality, and this misconception of one Indian nation has troubles and will lead India to destruction if we fail to revise our notions in time. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, litterateurs. They neither intermarry nor interdine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Mussalmans (Muslims) derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes, and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other and, likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built for the government of such a state.

„Any idea of a united India could never have worked and in my judgement it would have led us to terrific disaster. Maybe that view is correct; maybe it is not; that remains to be seen.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Address to the Constituent Assembly (1947)
Contexte: A division had to take place. On both sides, in Hindustan and Pakistan, there are sections of people who may not agree with it, who may not like it, but in my judgement there was no other solution and I am sure future history will record is verdict in favour of it. And what is more, it will be proved by actual experience as we go on that was the only solution of India's constitutional problem. Any idea of a united India could never have worked and in my judgement it would have led us to terrific disaster. Maybe that view is correct; maybe it is not; that remains to be seen.

„I do not know what the ultimate shape of this constitution is going to be, but I am sure that it will be of a democratic type, embodying the essential principle of Islam.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Broadcast to the people of the United States of America on Pakistan (February 1948), as quoted in "Jinnah dreamt of a secular Pakistan" in New Religion (11 February 2013) http://www.newreligion.eu/2013/02/jinnahs-dream-can-still-save-pakistan.html
Contexte: The constitution of Pakistan has yet to be framed by the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. I do not know what the ultimate shape of this constitution is going to be, but I am sure that it will be of a democratic type, embodying the essential principle of Islam. Today, they are as applicable in actual life as they were 1,300 years ago. Islam and its idealism have taught us democracy. It has taught equality of man, justice and fairplay to everybody. We are the inheritors of these glorious traditions and are fully alive to our responsibilities and obligations as framers of the future constitution of Pakistan. In any case Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to be ruled by priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims — Hindus, Christians, and Parsis — but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan.

„You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of democracy, social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy Ack Ack and 6th Light Ack Ack Regiments in Malir, Karachi (21 February 1948)
Contexte: You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of democracy, social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil. With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve.

„My message to you all is of hope, courage and confidence.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Eid-ul-Azha Message to the Nation (24 October 1947)
Contexte: My message to you all is of hope, courage and confidence. Let us mobilize all our resources in a systematic and organized way and tackle the grave issues that confront us with grim determination and discipline worthy of a great nation.

„No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. We are victims of evil customs.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Speech at a meeting of the Muslim University Union, Aligarh (10 March 1944)
Contexte: No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. We are victims of evil customs. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within the four walls of the houses as prisoners. There is no sanction anywhere for the deplorable condition in which our women have to live.

„Islam and its idealism have taught us democracy. It has taught equality of man, justice and fairplay to everybody.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Broadcast to the people of the United States of America on Pakistan (February 1948), as quoted in "Jinnah dreamt of a secular Pakistan" in New Religion (11 February 2013) http://www.newreligion.eu/2013/02/jinnahs-dream-can-still-save-pakistan.html
Contexte: The constitution of Pakistan has yet to be framed by the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. I do not know what the ultimate shape of this constitution is going to be, but I am sure that it will be of a democratic type, embodying the essential principle of Islam. Today, they are as applicable in actual life as they were 1,300 years ago. Islam and its idealism have taught us democracy. It has taught equality of man, justice and fairplay to everybody. We are the inheritors of these glorious traditions and are fully alive to our responsibilities and obligations as framers of the future constitution of Pakistan. In any case Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to be ruled by priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims — Hindus, Christians, and Parsis — but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan.

„My guiding principle will be justice and complete impartiality, and I am sure that with your support and co-operation, I can look forward to Pakistan becoming one of the greatest nations of the world.“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Address to the Constituent Assembly (1947)
Contexte: I shall always be guided by the principles of justice and fairplay without any, as is put in the political language, prejudice or ill-will, in other words, partiality or favouritism. My guiding principle will be justice and complete impartiality, and I am sure that with your support and co-operation, I can look forward to Pakistan becoming one of the greatest nations of the world.

„In any case Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to be ruled by priests with a divine mission“

—  Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Broadcast to the people of the United States of America on Pakistan (February 1948), as quoted in "Jinnah dreamt of a secular Pakistan" in New Religion (11 February 2013) http://www.newreligion.eu/2013/02/jinnahs-dream-can-still-save-pakistan.html
Contexte: The constitution of Pakistan has yet to be framed by the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. I do not know what the ultimate shape of this constitution is going to be, but I am sure that it will be of a democratic type, embodying the essential principle of Islam. Today, they are as applicable in actual life as they were 1,300 years ago. Islam and its idealism have taught us democracy. It has taught equality of man, justice and fairplay to everybody. We are the inheritors of these glorious traditions and are fully alive to our responsibilities and obligations as framers of the future constitution of Pakistan. In any case Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to be ruled by priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims — Hindus, Christians, and Parsis — but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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