Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud or MbS, is the crown prince of Saudi Arabia. He is serving as the country's deputy prime minister and is also chairman of the Council for Economic and Development Affairs, chairman of the Council of Political and Security Affairs, and minister of defense – the world's youngest at the time of his appointment. He has been described as the power behind the throne of his father, King Salman, who suffers from Alzheimer's disease. He was appointed crown prince in June 2017 following King Salman’s decision to remove Muhammad bin Nayef from all positions, making Mohammed bin Salman heir apparent to the throne.He has led a handful of successful reforms, which include regulations restricting the powers of the religious police, and the removal of the ban on female drivers. Other cultural developments under his reign include the first Saudi public concerts by a female singer, the first Saudi sports stadium to admit women, and an increased presence of women in the workforce. His Vision 2030 program aims to diversify the Saudi economy through investment in non-oil sectors including technology and tourism. In 2016 he announced plans to list the shares of the state oil company Saudi Aramco.Despite international praise for his strides towards the social and economic liberalisation of Saudi Arabia, commentators and human rights groups have been vocally critical of Mohammed bin Salman's leadership and the shortfalls of his reform program, citing a rising number of detentions of human rights activists, his bombing of Yemen in which war-induced famine could in 2018/2019 cause 13 million civilians to starve, the escalation of the Qatar diplomatic crisis, the start of the Lebanon–Saudi Arabia dispute, the arrest of members of the Saudi royal family in November 2017 and the killing of Jamal Khashoggi. Non-governmental organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch continue to criticize the Saudi government for its violations of human rights.