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Dante Alighieri

Date de naissance: 30. mai 1265
Date de décès: 14. septembre 1321

Dante Alighieri est un poète, écrivain, penseur et homme politique florentin né entre la mi-mai et la mi-juin 1265 à Florence et mort le 14 septembre 1321 à Ravenne.

« Père de la langue italienne »,, il est, avec Pétrarque et Boccace, l'une des « trois couronnes » qui imposèrent le toscan comme langue littéraire.

Poète majeur du Moyen Âge, il est l'auteur de la Divine Comédie, souvent considérée comme la plus grande œuvre écrite dans cet idiome et l'un des chefs-d'œuvre de la littérature mondiale.

Œuvres

Le Purgatoire
Dante Alighieri

„« O vaine gloire du génie humain combien peu de temps verdit la cime, si ne surviennent des âges grossiers!“

—  Dante Alighieri, livre Le Purgatoire

Le Purgatoire (1308-1321), Chant onzième
Source: « Combien courte est la gloire de ceux qui paraissent avoir atteint le sommet de l’art, si la barbarie, en arrêtant le progrès, n’empêche pas que d’autres s’élèvent au-dessus d’eux. »

„Je ne te donnerai », dit-il, « d'autre réponse
que par l'action; car la juste requête
doit être suivie par l'acte sans discours.“

—  Dante Alighieri

« Altra risposta », disse, « non tu rendo
se non lo far ; ché la dimanda onesta
si de' seguir con l'opera tacendo. »
it
L'Enfer (1308-1321), Chant vingt-quatrième

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„Ye keep your watch in the eternal day.“

—  Dante Alighieri, livre Le Purgatoire

Canto XXX, line 103 (tr. Longfellow).
The Divine Comedy (c. 1308–1321), Purgatorio
Original: (la) Voi vigilate ne l'etterno die.

„From that point
Dependent is the heaven and nature all.“

—  Dante Alighieri, livre Paradiso

Canto XXVIII, lines 41–42 (tr. Longfellow).
The Divine Comedy (c. 1308–1321), Paradiso
Original: (rm) Da quel punto
depende il cielo e tutta la natura.

„Do you not know that we are worms and born
To form the angelic butterfly that soars,
Without defenses, to confront His judgment?“

—  Dante Alighieri, livre Le Purgatoire

Canto X, lines 121–129 (tr. Mandelbaum).
The Divine Comedy (c. 1308–1321), Purgatorio
Contexte: O Christians, arrogant, exhausted, wretched,
Whose intellects are sick and cannot see,
Who place your confidence in backward steps,
Do you not know that we are worms and born
To form the angelic butterfly that soars,
Without defenses, to confront His judgment?
Why does your mind presume to flight when you
Are still like the imperfect grub, the worm
Before it has attained its final form?

„But now was turning my desire and will,
Even as a wheel that equally is moved,“

—  Dante Alighieri, livre Paradiso

Canto XXXIII, closing lines, as translated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
The Divine Comedy (c. 1308–1321), Paradiso
Contexte: p>As the geometrician, who endeavours
To square the circle, and discovers not,
By taking thought, the principle he wants,Even such was I at that new apparition;
I wished to see how the image to the circle
Conformed itself, and how it there finds place;But my own wings were not enough for this,
Had it not been that then my mind there smote
A flash of lightning, wherein came its wish. Here vigour failed the lofty fantasy:
But now was turning my desire and will,
Even as a wheel that equally is moved,The Love which moves the sun and the other stars.</p

„The Love which moves the sun and the other stars.“

—  Dante Alighieri, livre Paradiso

Canto XXXIII, closing lines, as translated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
The Divine Comedy (c. 1308–1321), Paradiso
Contexte: p>As the geometrician, who endeavours
To square the circle, and discovers not,
By taking thought, the principle he wants,Even such was I at that new apparition;
I wished to see how the image to the circle
Conformed itself, and how it there finds place;But my own wings were not enough for this,
Had it not been that then my mind there smote
A flash of lightning, wherein came its wish. Here vigour failed the lofty fantasy:
But now was turning my desire and will,
Even as a wheel that equally is moved,The Love which moves the sun and the other stars.</p

„To her perfection all of beauty tends.“

—  Dante Alighieri, livre Vita Nuova

Source: La Vita Nuova (1293), Chapter XIV, lines 49–50 (tr. Barbara Reynolds)
Contexte: She is the sum of nature's universe.
To her perfection all of beauty tends.

„The use of men is like a leaf
On bough, which goeth and another cometh.“

—  Dante Alighieri, livre Paradiso

Canto XXVI, lines 137–138 (tr. Longfellow).
The Divine Comedy (c. 1308–1321), Paradiso

„For to lose time irks him most who most knows.“

—  Dante Alighieri, livre Le Purgatoire

Canto III, line 78 (tr. Longfellow).
The Divine Comedy (c. 1308–1321), Purgatorio

„Not only thy benignity gives succour
To him who asketh it, but oftentimes
Forerunneth of its own accord the asking.“

—  Dante Alighieri, livre Paradiso

Canto XXXIII, lines 16–18 (tr. Longfellow).
The Divine Comedy (c. 1308–1321), Paradiso

„When we understand this we see clearly that the subject round which the alternative senses play must be twofold. And we must therefore consider the subject of this work [the Divine Comedy] as literally understood, and then its subject as allegorically intended. The subject of the whole work, then, taken in the literal sense only is "the state of souls after death" without qualification, for the whole progress of the work hinges on it and about it. Whereas if the work be taken allegorically, the subject is "man as by good or ill deserts, in the exercise of the freedom of his choice, he becomes liable to rewarding or punishing justice."“

—  Dante Alighieri

Letter to Can Grande (Epistle XIII, 23–25), as translated by Charles Singleton in his essay "Two Kinds of Allegory" published in Dante Studies 1 (Harvard University Press, 1954), p. 87.
Epistolae (Letters)
Original: (la) Hiis visis, manifestum est quod duplex oportet esse subiectum circa quod currant alterni sensus. Et ideo videndum est de subiecto huius operis, prout ad litteram accipitur; deinde de subiecto, prout allegorice sententiatur. Est ergo subiectum totius operis, litteraliter tantum accepti, status animarum post mortem simpliciter sumptus. Nam de illo et circa illum totius operis versatur processus. Si vero accipiatur opus allegorice, subiectum est homo, prout merendo et demerendo per arbitrii libertatem iustitie premiandi et puniendi obnoxius est.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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