Ibn Khaldoun citations

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Ibn Khaldoun

Date de naissance: 27. mai 1332
Date de décès: 17. mars 1406

Ibn Khaldoun, en arabe ابن خلدون , de son nom complet Abū Zayd ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī, , est un historien, philosophe, diplomate et homme politique ifriqiyen, issu d'une famille andalouse d'origine arabe,.

Sa façon d'analyser les changements sociaux et politiques qu'il a observés dans le Maghreb et l'Espagne de son époque a conduit à considérer Ibn Khaldoun comme un « précurseur de la sociologie moderne ».

Ibn Khaldoun est aussi un historien de premier plan auquel on doit la Muqaddima , qui est en fait son Introduction à l'histoire universelle et à la sociologie moderne, et Le Livre des exemples ou Livre des considérations sur l'histoire des Arabes, des Persans et des Berbères. Dans ces deux ouvrages résolument modernes dans leur méthode, Ibn Khaldoun insiste dès le début sur l'importance des sources, de leur authenticité et de leur vérification à l'aune de critères purement rationnels. Georges Marçais affirme que « l'œuvre d'Ibn Khaldoun est un des ouvrages les plus substantiels et les plus intéressants qu'ait produit l'esprit humain ».

Néanmoins, des intellectuels déplorent que bien que son nom soit aussi célèbre au Sud qu'au Nord de la Méditerranée, son œuvre soit surtout lue dans cette seconde région.

Citations Ibn Khaldoun

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„(Unlike Muslims), the other religious groups did not have a universal mission, and the holy war was not a religious duty to them, save only for purposes of defence… They are merely required to establish their religion among their own people. This is why the Israelites after Moses and Joshua remained unconcerned with royal authority for about four hundred years. Their only concern was to establish their religion… The Israelites dispossessed the Canaanites of the land that God had given them as their heritage in Jerusalem and the surrounding region, as it had been explained to them through Moses. The nations of the Philistines, the Canaanites, the Armenians, the Edomites, the Ammonites, and the Moabites fought against them. During that time political leadership was entrusted to the elders among them. The Israelites remained in that condition for about four hundred years. They did not have any royal power and were harassed by attacks from foreign nations. Therefore, they asked God through Samuel, one of their prophets, that he permit them to make someone king over them. Thus, Saul became their king. He defeated the foreign nations and killed Goliath, the ruler of Philistines. After Saul, w:David became king, and then Solomon. His kingdom flourished and extended to the borders of the land of the Hijaz and further to the borders of Yemen and to the borders of the land of the Byzantines. After Solomon, the tribes split into two dynasties. One of the dysnaties was that of the ten tribes in the region of Nablus, the capital of which is Samaria(Sabastiyah), and the other that of the children of Judah and Benjamin in Jerusalem. Their royal authority had had an uninterrupted duration of a thousand years.“

—  Ibn Khaldun, livre Muqaddimah

Muqaddimah, Translated by Franz Rosenthal, pp.183-184, Princeton University Press, 1981.
Muqaddimah (1377)

„All the sciences came to exist in Arabic. The systematic works on them were written in Arabic writing.“

—  Ibn Khaldun, livre Muqaddimah

Muqaddimah, Translated by Franz Rosenthal, p. 432, Princeton University Press, 1981.
Muqaddimah (1377)

„Indeed, you should not desire to weigh with the intellect the issues of Tawhīd and the Hereafter; the reality of Prophethood; the reality of divine attributes and every other thing beyond the scope of the intellect, for such a desire is futile. An example of this would be a man who has a scale used for weighing gold suddenly desiring to weigh mountains with it! This does not mean that the scale is wrong in its measures; rather, the intellect has a limit it cannot surpass and a boundary it cannot transcend.“

—  Ibn Khaldun

As quoted in Muḥammad Ramaḍān al-Ramaḍānī, ' The Delusion of Portraying the Aḥadīth as Being Contradictory to the Intellect and Sense Perception https://www.academia.edu/41143364/The_Delusion_of_Portraying_the_A%E1%B8%A5ad%C4%ABth_as_Being_Contradictory_to_the_Intellect_and_Sense_Perception_by_Mu%E1%B8%A5ammad_Rama%E1%B8%8D%C4%81n_al-Rama%E1%B8%8D%C4%81n%C4%AB?fbclid=IwAR2ADVWT4gR0yhH0NVxpUj7ME1qU9nQu1QnCcy8zmrfb5rXkJlatb24aCrw'

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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