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Auguste Comte

Date de naissance: 19. janvier 1798
Date de décès: 5. septembre 1857

Auguste Comte , né le 19 janvier 1798 à Montpellier et mort le 5 septembre 1857 à Paris, est un philosophe français. Il fut le secrétaire particulier puis le disciple du comte de Saint-Simon, lui-même fondateur du mouvement saint-simonien.

Après sa rencontre en 1844 avec Clotilde de Vaux et la mort de celle-ci en 1846, Auguste Comte fonde la « religion de l'humanité », sorte de religion sans Dieu où la déesse de l’Humanité est constituée de « l’ensemble des êtres passés, futurs et présents qui concourent librement à perfectionner l'ordre universel ».

Il est le fondateur du positivisme, et est considéré comme un des précurseurs de la sociologie, qui constitue selon lui le sommet des recherches scientifiques. Il est l'auteur de la célèbre loi des trois états, selon laquelle l'esprit humain passe successivement par « l'âge théologique », par « l'âge métaphysique », pour aboutir enfin à « l'âge positif » admettant que la seule vérité accessible l'est par les sciences. Son influence sur l'épistémologie et la sociologie françaises est considérable.

„Social positivism only accepts duties, for all and towards all. Its constant social viewpoint cannot include any notion of rights, for such notion always rests on individuality.“

—  Auguste Comte

Le Catéchisme positiviste (1852)
Contexte: Social positivism only accepts duties, for all and towards all. Its constant social viewpoint cannot include any notion of rights, for such notion always rests on individuality. We are born under a load of obligations of every kind, to our predecessors, to our successors, to our contemporaries. These obligations then increase or accumulate, for it is some time before we can return any service. … Any human right is therefore as absurd as immoral. Since there are no divine rights anymore, this concept must therefore disappear completely as related only to the preliminary regime and totally inconsistent with the final state where there are only duties based on functions.

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„Notwithstanding the eminent difficulties of the mathematical theory of sonorous vibrations, we owe to it such progress as has yet been made in acoustics. The formation of the differential equations proper to the phenomena is, independent of their integration, a very important acquisition, on account of the approximations which mathematical analysis allows between questions, otherwise heterogeneous, which lead to similar equations. This fundamental property, whose value we have so often to recognize, applies remarkably in the present case; and especially since the creation of mathematical thermology, whose principal equations are strongly analogous to those of vibratory motion. This means of investigation is all the more valuable on account of the difficulties in the way of direct inquiry into the phenomena of sound. We may decide the necessity of the atmospheric medium for the transmission of sonorous vibrations; and we may conceive of the possibility of determining by experiment the duration of the propagation, in the air, and then through other media; but the general laws of the vibrations of sonorous bodies escape immediate observation. We should know almost nothing of the whole case if the mathematical theory did not come in to connect the different phenomena of sound, enabling us to substitute for direct observation an equivalent examination of more favorable cases subjected to the same law. For instance, when the analysis of the problem of vibrating chords has shown us that, other things being equal, the number of oscillations is hi inverse proportion to the length of the chord, we see that the most rapid vibrations of a very short chord may be counted, since the law enables us to direct our attention to very slow vibrations. The same substitution is at our command in many cases in which it is less direct.“

—  Auguste Comte

Bk. 3, chap. 4; as cited in: Moritz (1914, 240)
System of positive polity (1852)

„Mathematical Analysis is… the true rational basis of the whole system of our positive knowledge.“

—  Auguste Comte

Bk. 1, chap. 1; as cited in: Robert Edouard Moritz. Memorabilia mathematica; or, The philomath's quotation-book https://archive.org/stream/memorabiliamathe00moriiala#page/81/mode/2up, (1914), p. 224
System of positive polity (1852)

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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