„It is not true that on an exchange of commodities we give value for value. On the contrary, each of the two contracting parties in every case, gives a less for a greater value. … If we really exchanged equal values, neither party could make a profit. And yet, they both gain, or ought to gain. Why? The value of a thing consists solely in its relation to our wants. What is more to the one is less to the other, and vice versa. … It is not to be assumed that we offer for sale articles required for our own consumption. … We wish to part with a useless thing, in order to get one that we need; we want to give less for more. … It was natural to think that, in an exchange, value was given for value, whenever each of the articles exchanged was of equal value with the same quantity of gold. … But there is another point to be considered in our calculation. The question is, whether we both exchange something superfluous for something necessary.“

Le Commerce et le Gouvernement (1776), as quoted in Marx's Capital, Vol. I, Ch. 5.

Adopté de Wikiquote. Dernière mise à jour 3 juin 2021. L'histoire
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac photo
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
philosophe, écrivain, académicien et économiste français 1714 - 1780

Citations similaires

Étienne Bonnot de Condillac photo

„It is not true that on an exchange of commodities we give value for value. On the contrary, each of the two contracting parties in every case, gives a less for a greater value. … If we really exchanged equal values, neither party could make a profit. And yet, they both gain, or ought to gain. Why? The value of a thing consists solely in its relation to our wants. What is more to the one is less to the other, and vice versa.“

—  Étienne Bonnot de Condillac French academic 1714 - 1780

… It is not to be assumed that we offer for sale articles required for our own consumption. … We wish to part with a useless thing, in order to get one that we need; we want to give less for more. … It was natural to think that, in an exchange, value was given for value, whenever each of the articles exchanged was of equal value with the same quantity of gold. … But there is another point to be considered in our calculation. The question is, whether we both exchange something superfluous for something necessary.
Le Commerce et le Gouvernement (1776), as quoted in Marx's Capital, Vol. I, Ch. 5.

Bruce Lee photo

„The More we value things, the less we value ourselves“

—  Bruce Lee Hong Kong-American actor, martial artist, philosopher and filmmaker 1940 - 1973

Karl Marx photo

„Exchange value forms the substance of money, and exchange value is wealth.“

—  Karl Marx German philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist 1818 - 1883

Grundrisse (1857-1858)
Source: Notebook II, The Chapter on Money, p. 141.

Lupe Fiasco photo
Friedrich Nietzsche photo
Christopher Moore photo
Adam Smith photo

„Labour, therefore, is the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities“

—  Adam Smith Scottish moral philosopher and political economist 1723 - 1790

Source: The Wealth of Nations (1776), Book I, Chapter V.
Contexte: Every man is rich or poor according to the degree in which he can afford to enjoy the necessaries, conveniences, and amusements of human life. But after the division of labour has once thoroughly taken place, it is but a very small part of these with which a man's own labour can supply him. The far greater part of them he must derive from the labour of other people, and he must be rich or poor according to the quantity of that labour which he can command, or which he can afford to purchase. The value of any commodity, therefore, to the person who possesses it, and who means not to use or consume it himself, but to exchange it for other commodities, is equal to the quantity of labour which it enables him to purchase or command. Labour, therefore, is the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities.

David Ricardo photo

„Possessing utility, commodities derive their exchangeable value from two sources: from their scarcity, and from the quantity of labour required to obtain them.“

—  David Ricardo British political economist, broker and politician 1772 - 1823

Source: The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1821) (Third Edition), Chapter I, Section I, On Value, p. 5

David Ricardo photo

„Utility then is not the measure of exchangeable value, although it is absolutely essential to it.“

—  David Ricardo British political economist, broker and politician 1772 - 1823

Source: The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1821) (Third Edition), Chapter I, Section I, On Value, p. 5

Ronald Reagan photo

„We will never recognize the true value of our own lives until we affirm the value in the life of others.“

—  Ronald Reagan American politician, 40th president of the United States (in office from 1981 to 1989) 1911 - 2004

1980s, First term of office (1981–1985), Abortion and the Conscience of the Nation (1983)

Hilaire Belloc photo
Mark Steyn photo

„I think we really have to stand for something. I think we give the customer better value.“

—  Charlie Ergen American businessman 1953

Interview with CNBC's David Faber http://www.cnbc.com/2015/05/14/cnbc-exclusive-cnbc-transcript-dish-chairman-ceo-charlie-ergen-speaks-with-cnbcs-david-faber-on-squawk-on-the-street-today.html (2015)

Augustus De Morgan photo
Eleanor Roosevelt photo

„As long as we are not actually destroyed, we can work to gain greater understanding of other peoples and to try to present to the peoples of the world the values of our own beliefs.“

—  Eleanor Roosevelt, My Day

My Day (1935–1962)
Contexte: As long as we are not actually destroyed, we can work to gain greater understanding of other peoples and to try to present to the peoples of the world the values of our own beliefs. We can do this by demonstrating our conviction that human life is worth preserving and that we are willing to help others to enjoy benefits of our civilization just as we have enjoyed it. (20 December 1961)

Daniel Defoe photo
Mikhail Gorbachev photo

„We have retreated from the perennial values. I don't think that we need any new values. The most important thing is to try to revive the universally known values from which we have retreated.“

—  Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1931

"Nature Is My God" - interview with Fred Matser in Resurgence No. 184 (September-October 1997) http://www.resurgence.org/resurgence/184/gorbachev.htm
Contexte: We have retreated from the perennial values. I don't think that we need any new values. The most important thing is to try to revive the universally known values from which we have retreated.
As a young man, I really took to heart the Communist ideals. A young soul certainly cannot reject things like justice and equality. These were the goals proclaimed by the Communists. But in reality that terrible Communist experiment brought about repression of human dignity. Violence was used in order to impose that model on society. In the name of Communism we abandoned basic human values. So when I came to power in Russia I started to restore those values; values of "openness" and freedom.

Avec