„Capitalism is commodity production at the highest stage of development, when labor power itself becomes a commodity. The growth of internal exchange, and particularly of international exchange, is a special feature of capitalism. The uneven and spasmodic character of the development of individual enterprises, of individual branches of industry and individual countries, is inevitable under the capitalist system.“

—  Lénine

Source: Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917), Chapter Four, "The Export of Capital"

Adopté de Wikiquote. Dernière mise à jour 3 juin 2021. L'histoire
Lénine photo
révolutionnaire et homme d'état soviétique 1870 - 1924

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„The core of the Marxist critique of capitalism is that although the individual capitalist is rational (as liberals assume), the capitalist system itself is irrational.“

—  Robert Gilpin Political scientist 1930 - 2018

Source: The Political Economy of International Relations (1987), Chapter Two, Three Ideologies Of Political Economy, p. 37

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„These individual actions are really trans-actions instead of either individual behavior or the "exchange" of commodities. It is this shift from commodities and individuals to transactions and working rules of collective action that marks the transition from the classical and hedonic schools to the institutional schools of economic thinking. The shift is a change in the ultimate unit of economic investigation. The classic and hedonic economists, with their communistic and anarchistic offshoots, founded their theories on the relation of man to nature, but institutionalism is a relation of man to man. The smallest unit of the classic economists was a commodity produced by labor. The smallest unit of the hedonic economists was the same or similar commodity enjoyed by ultimate consumers. One was the objective side, the other the subjective side, of the same relation between the individual and the forces of nature. The outcome, in either case, was the materialistic metaphor of an automatic equilibrium, analogous to the waves of the ocean, but personified as "seeking their level." But the smallest unit of the institutional economists is a unit of activity -- a transaction, with its participants. Transactions intervene between the labor of the classic economists and the pleasures of the hedonic economists, simply because it is society that controls access to the forces of nature, and transactions are, not the "exchange of commodities," but the alienation and acquisition, between individuals, of the rights of property and liberty created by society, which must therefore be negotiated between the parties concerned before labor can produce, or consumers can consume, or commodities be physically exchanged.“

—  John R. Commons United States institutional economist and labor historian 1862 - 1945

"Institutional Economics," 1931

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„Individual capitalists, in short, necessarily act in such a way as to de-stabilize capitalism.“

—  David Harvey British anthropologist 1935

Variante: Individual capitalists, in short, behave in such a way as to threaten the conditions that permit the reproduction of the capitalist class.
Source: The Limits To Capital (2006 VERSO Edition), Chapter 6, Dynamics Of Accumulation, p. 188

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„The development of the individual to his highest potential for the benefit of the group.“

—  Ella Baker African-American civil rights and human rights activist 1903 - 1986

The Eyes on the Prize Civil Rights Reader: documents, speeches and firsthand accounts from the Black Freedom Struggle, 1954–1990, ed. Clayborne Carson et al. (Penguin Books, 1991), p. 121.