Joseph Staline citations

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Joseph Staline

Date de naissance: 9. décembre 1879
Date de décès: 5. mars 1953
Autres noms: Josif Vissarionovič Stalin, Josif Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovitch Djougachvili , connu sous le nom de Joseph Staline , également surnommé par sa propre propagande le Vojd ou Le père des peuples, né le 18 décembre 1878 — officiellement le 21 décembre 1879 — à Gori et mort le 5 mars 1953 à Moscou, est un révolutionnaire communiste et homme d'État soviétique d'origine géorgienne.

Secrétaire général du Parti communiste soviétique à partir de 1922, il dirige l'Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques à partir de la fin des années 1920 jusqu'à sa mort. Il établit un régime de dictature personnelle : les historiens lui attribuent, à des degrés divers, la responsabilité de la mort de trois à plus de vingt millions de personnes.

Surnommé Sosso pendant son enfance, il se fait ensuite appeler Koba dans ses premières années de militantisme clandestin et par ses amis proches. Il utilise ensuite le pseudonyme de Staline, formé sur le mot russe сталь , qui signifie acier.

Par un jeu patient d'intrigues souterraines et d'alliances successives avec les diverses factions du parti unique bolchevik, et en s'appuyant sur la toute-puissante police politique et sur la bureaucratisation croissante du régime, il impose progressivement un pouvoir personnel absolu et transforme l'URSS en un régime de type totalitaire dont le culte obligatoire rendu à sa propre personne est un des traits les plus marquants. Il fait nationaliser intégralement les terres, et industrialise l'Union soviétique à marche forcée par des plans quinquennaux, au prix d'un coût humain et social exorbitant. Son long règne est marqué par un régime de terreur et de délation paroxystiques et par la mise à mort ou l'envoi aux camps de travail du Goulag de millions de personnes, notamment au cours de la collectivisation des campagnes et des Grandes Purges de 1937. Il pratique aussi bien des déplacements de population massifs, dont la déportation intégrale d'une quinzaine de minorités nationales, que la sédentarisation forcée non moins désastreuse de nomades d'Asie centrale. Il nie aussi l'existence des famines meurtrières de 1932-1933 et de 1946-1947 après les avoir en partie provoquées par une politique impitoyable de réquisitions forcées de produits agricoles dans les campagnes. Le secret et la propagande systématiquement entretenus autour de ses faits et gestes font du travestissement de la réalité et de la réécriture du passé une caractéristique permanente de son pouvoir absolu.

Son souvenir est aussi associé à la victoire militaire des Alliés sur l'Allemagne nazie dont l'Union soviétique est un des principaux artisans, après la rupture en juin 1941 du pacte germano-soviétique, traité de non-agression dont la signature en août 1939 a été le prélude au déclenchement de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. La victoire dans un conflit qui a mis l'URSS au bord du gouffre confère à Staline un prestige international retentissant et lui permet d'affirmer son emprise sur un empire s'étendant de la frontière occidentale de la RDA à l'océan Pacifique.

Joseph Staline est également l'auteur de textes exposant ses conceptions du marxisme et du léninisme, qui contribuent à fixer pour des décennies, au sein du mouvement communiste, l'orthodoxie marxiste-léniniste. Sa pratique politique et ses conceptions idéologiques sont désignées sous le terme de stalinisme.

Après la mort de Staline, ces pratiques sont dénoncées par Nikita Khrouchtchev au cours du XXe congrès du Parti communiste de l'Union soviétique de 1956 : la déstalinisation et la relative détente qui s'ensuivent n'entraînent cependant pas une démocratisation en profondeur du bloc de l'Est. Ce n'est qu'à l'époque de la perestroïka mise en place par Mikhaïl Gorbatchev que les crimes de Staline peuvent être dénoncés en URSS dans toute leur ampleur,.

Citations Joseph Staline

„Le pape? Combien de divisions?“

—  Joseph Staline

le 13 mai 1935 à Pierre Laval, lui proposant de faire preuve de diplomatie envers le l'État du Vatican.[Le petit livre de - les grandes phrases, Gilles Guilleron, First Editions, 2010, 117]
Vatican

Cette traduction est en attente de révision. Est-ce correct?

„What guarantee is there that the fascist literary politicians in Berlin will be more fortunate than the old and experienced conquerors in Rome? Would it not be more correct to assume that the opposite will be the case?“

—  Joseph Stalin

Report to the Seventeenth Party Congress on the Work of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. (B.) https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1934/01/26.htm (January 26, 1934)
Stalin's speeches, writings and authorised interviews
Contexte: Still others think that war should be organised by a "superior race," say, the German "race," against an "inferior race," primarily against the Slavs; that only such a war can provide a way out of the situation, for it is the mission of the "superior race" to render the "inferior race" fruitful and to rule over it. Let us assume that this queer theory, which is as far removed from science as the sky from the earth, let us assume that this queer theory is put into practice. What may be the result of that? It is well known that ancient Rome looked upon the ancestors of the present-day Germans and French in the same way as the representatives of the "superior race" now look upon the Slav races. It is well known that ancient Rome treated them as an "inferior race," as "barbarians," destined to live in eternal subordination to the "superior race," to "great Rome", and, between ourselves be it said, ancient Rome had some grounds for this, which cannot be said of the representatives of the "superior race" of today. (Thunderous applause.) But what was the upshot of this? The upshot was that the non-Romans, i. e., all the "barbarians," united against the common enemy and brought Rome down with a crash. The question arises: What guarantee is there that the claims of the representatives of the "superior race" of today will not lead to the same lamentable results? What guarantee is there that the fascist literary politicians in Berlin will be more fortunate than the old and experienced conquerors in Rome? Would it not be more correct to assume that the opposite will be the case?

„I'm finished. I trust no one, not even myself.“

—  Joseph Stalin

Remark to Nikita Khrushchev and Anastas Mikoyan as quoted in "Khrushchev: Notes from a Forbidden Land", http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,904531-4,00.html Time, 30 November 1970, citing the publication of an installment of Khrushchev's reminiscences in Life that week.
Contemporary witnesses

„Ideas are more powerful than guns. We would not let our enemies have guns, why should we let them have ideas?“

—  Joseph Stalin

Often attributed to Stalin, there is not a single source which show that Stalin said this at any given time. There is only one source outside the blogosphere which attributes the quote to Stalin, but does not provide any evidence for the attribution. That source is the book Quotations for Public Speakers : A Historical, Literary, and Political Anthology (2001), p. 121 by the former US senator Robert Torricelli.
Misattributed

„We will hang the capitalists with the rope that they sell us.“

—  Joseph Stalin

Often attributed to Stalin and Marx, according to the book, They Never Said It (1989), p. 64, the phrase derives from a rumour that Lenin said this to one of his close associates, Grigori Zinoviev, not long after a meeting of the Politburo in the early 1920s, but there is no evidence that he ever did. It has also been believed that Lenin may have expressed that the profit motive cannot be undone in that "If we were to hang the last capitalist, another would suddenly appear to sell us the rope". Experts on the Soviet Union reject the rope quote as spurious. However, it is established that Lenin did remark on the same underlying theme (even if not in reference to rope), namely, that capitalists in their addiction to high profits could not help themselves from selling things to a socialist state, even if it was against their own long-term interests by strengthening an enemy; Edvard Radzinsky covers it in his discussion of Lenin's comments on the "deaf-mutes" in Radzinsky's biography of Stalin.
Misattributed

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„Education is a weapon whose effects depend on who holds it in his hands and at whom it is aimed.“

—  Joseph Stalin

Interview http://www.rationalrevolution.net/special/library/cc835_44.htm with H. G. Wells (September 1937)
Stalin's speeches, writings and authorised interviews

„The leaders come and go, but the people remain. Only the people are immortal“

—  Joseph Stalin

Address to the Reception of Directors and Stakhanovites of the Metal Industry and the Coal Mining Industry http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1937/10/29.htm (29 October 1937)
Stalin's speeches, writings and authorised interviews
Contexte: The confidence of the people in the worker-directors of the economy is a great thing, Comrades. The leaders come and go, but the people remain. Only the people are immortal, everything else is ephemeral. That is why it is necessary to appreciate the full value of the confidence of the people.

La citation est attribuée par erreur à l'auteur.

„When there's a person, there's a problem. When there's no person, there's no problem.“

—  Joseph Stalin

It is mistakenly attributed to Stalin: there is no evidence that he ever said or wrote something like that.

This phrase from the novel "Children of the Arbat" (1987) by Анатолий Наумович Рыбаков (1911 — 1998). As Stalin said about the execution of military experts in Tsaritsyn in 1918: "Death solves all problems. No person and no problem. " Later, in his «Роман-воспоминание» (1997), Рыбаков wrote that the phrase Stalin "possibly from someone heard, perhaps, he came up with." This was Stalin's principle. I just, it briefly formulated."

„This creature softened my heart of stone. She died and with her died my last warm feelings for humanity.“

—  Joseph Stalin

At the funeral of his first wife, Kato Svanidze, on 25 November 1907, as quoted in Young Stalin (2007) by Simon Sebag Montefiore, p. 193
Contemporary witnesses

„A sincere diplomat is like dry water or wooden iron.“

—  Joseph Stalin

Speech "The Elections in St. Petersburg" (January 1913) http://marx2mao.com/Stalin/ESP13.html
Stalin's speeches, writings and authorised interviews

„I consider it completely unimportant who in the party will vote, or how; but what is extraordinarily important is this—who will count the votes, and how.“

—  Joseph Stalin

In Russian: Я считаю, что совершенно неважно, кто и как будет в партии голосовать; но вот что чрезвычайно важно, это - кто и как будет считать голоса.
Said in 1923, as quoted in The Memoirs of Stalin's Former Secretary http://www.panrus.com/books/details.php?langID=1&bookID=5905 (1992) by Boris Bazhanov [Saint Petersburg] (Борис Бажанов. Воспоминания бывшего секретаря Сталина). (Text online in Russian) http://lib.ru/MEMUARY/BAZHANOW/stalin.txt.
Variant (loose) translation: The people who cast the votes decide nothing. The people who count the votes decide everything.
Contemporary witnesses

„It is well known that ancient Rome looked upon the ancestors of the present-day Germans and French in the same way as the representatives of the "superior race" now look upon the Slav races. It is well known that ancient Rome treated them as an "inferior race," as "barbarians," destined to live in eternal subordination to the "superior race," to "great Rome", and, between ourselves be it said, ancient Rome had some grounds for this, which cannot be said of the representatives of the "superior race" of today.“

—  Joseph Stalin

Report to the Seventeenth Party Congress on the Work of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. (B.) https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1934/01/26.htm (January 26, 1934)
Stalin's speeches, writings and authorised interviews
Contexte: Still others think that war should be organised by a "superior race," say, the German "race," against an "inferior race," primarily against the Slavs; that only such a war can provide a way out of the situation, for it is the mission of the "superior race" to render the "inferior race" fruitful and to rule over it. Let us assume that this queer theory, which is as far removed from science as the sky from the earth, let us assume that this queer theory is put into practice. What may be the result of that? It is well known that ancient Rome looked upon the ancestors of the present-day Germans and French in the same way as the representatives of the "superior race" now look upon the Slav races. It is well known that ancient Rome treated them as an "inferior race," as "barbarians," destined to live in eternal subordination to the "superior race," to "great Rome", and, between ourselves be it said, ancient Rome had some grounds for this, which cannot be said of the representatives of the "superior race" of today. (Thunderous applause.) But what was the upshot of this? The upshot was that the non-Romans, i. e., all the "barbarians," united against the common enemy and brought Rome down with a crash. The question arises: What guarantee is there that the claims of the representatives of the "superior race" of today will not lead to the same lamentable results? What guarantee is there that the fascist literary politicians in Berlin will be more fortunate than the old and experienced conquerors in Rome? Would it not be more correct to assume that the opposite will be the case?

„A single death is a tragedy; a million deaths is a statistic.“

—  Joseph Stalin

Variants: One death is a tragedy. A million deaths is just a statistic.
A single death is a tragedy; a million deaths is a statistic.
When one dies, it is a tragedy. When a million die, it is a statistic.
In Портрет тирана (1981) (Portrait of a Tyrant), Soviet historian Anton Antonov-Ovseyenko attributes the following version to Stalin: "When one man dies it's a tragedy. When thousands die it's statistics." This is the alleged response of Stalin during the 1943 Tehran conference when Churchill objected to an early opening of a second front in France.<!-- The book appears to have a footnote sourceing the claim, but I couldn't access it. Could someone please try to scare up a paper copy and have a look at footnote 188? -->
In her review "Mustering Most Memorable Quips" of Konstantin Dushenko's 1997 Dictionary of Modern Quotations (Словарь современных цитат: 4300 ходячих цитат и выражений ХХ века, их источники, авторы, датировка), Julia Solovyova states: "Russian historians have no record of the lines, 'Death of one man is a tragedy. Death of a million is a statistic,' commonly attributed by English-language dictionaries to Josef Stalin."
This quotation may originate from "Französischer Witz" (1925) by Kurt Tucholsky: "Darauf sagt ein Diplomat vom Quai d'Orsay: «Der Krieg? Ich kann das nicht so schrecklich finden! Der Tod eines Menschen: das ist eine Katastrophe. Hunderttausend Tote: das ist eine Statistik!»" ("To which a Quai d'Orsay diplomat replies: «The war? I can't find it so terrible! The death of one man: that is a catastrophe. One hundred thousand deaths: that is a statistic!»")
Another possible source or intermediary may be the concluding words of chapter 8 of the 1956 novel The Black Obelisk by Erich Maria Remarque: "Aber das ist wohl so, weil ein einzelner immer der Tod ist — und zwei Millionen immer nur eine Statistik." ("But probably the reason is that one dead man is death—and two million are only a statistic." 1958 Crest Book reprint)
Mary Soames (daughter of Churchill) claims to have overheard Stalin deliver a variant of the quote in immediate postwar Berlin (Remembrance Sunday Andrew Marr interview BBC 2011) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hP2tpw9XEw
See also Jean Rostand, Thoughts of a Biologist, 1939: "Kill one man, and you are a murderer. Kill millions of men, and you are a conqueror. Kill them all, and you are a god."
In an interview given for the 1983 three-part documentary Der Prozeß by Norddeutscher Rundfunk on the Third Majdanek trial, Simon Wiesenthal attributes the quote to the unpublished auto-biography of Adolf Eichmann. According to Wiesenthal, Eichmann had been asked by another member of the Reich Main Security Office during WWII what they should answer would they be questioned after the war about the millions of dead Jews they were responsible for, to which Eichmann according to his own testimony had replied with the quote.
Misattributed
Variante: The death of one man is a tragedy, the death of millions is a statistic.

„This is a great mistake.
We believe that the Anarchists are real enemies of Marxism.“

—  Joseph Stalin

Anarchism or Socialism (1906)
Contexte: We are not the kind of people who, when the word "anarchism" is mentioned, turn away contemptuously and say with a supercilious wave of the hand: "Why waste time on that, it's not worth talking about!" We think that such cheap "criticism" is undignified and useless.
Nor are we the kind of people who console themselves with the thought that the Anarchists "have no masses behind them and, therefore, are not so dangerous." It is not who has a larger or smaller "mass" following today, but the essence of the doctrine that matters. If the "doctrine" of the Anarchists expresses the truth, then it goes without saying that it will certainly hew a path for itself and will rally the masses around itself. If, however, it is unsound and built up on a false foundation, it will not last long and will remain suspended in mid-air. But the unsoundness of anarchism must be proved.
Some people believe that Marxism and anarchism are based on the same principles and that the disagreements between them concern only tactics, so that, in the opinion of these people, no distinction whatsoever can be drawn between these two trends.
This is a great mistake.
We believe that the Anarchists are real enemies of Marxism. Accordingly, we also hold that a real struggle must be waged against real enemies.

„It is not who has a larger or smaller "mass" following today, but the essence of the doctrine that matters.“

—  Joseph Stalin

Anarchism or Socialism (1906)
Contexte: We are not the kind of people who, when the word "anarchism" is mentioned, turn away contemptuously and say with a supercilious wave of the hand: "Why waste time on that, it's not worth talking about!" We think that such cheap "criticism" is undignified and useless.
Nor are we the kind of people who console themselves with the thought that the Anarchists "have no masses behind them and, therefore, are not so dangerous." It is not who has a larger or smaller "mass" following today, but the essence of the doctrine that matters. If the "doctrine" of the Anarchists expresses the truth, then it goes without saying that it will certainly hew a path for itself and will rally the masses around itself. If, however, it is unsound and built up on a false foundation, it will not last long and will remain suspended in mid-air. But the unsoundness of anarchism must be proved.
Some people believe that Marxism and anarchism are based on the same principles and that the disagreements between them concern only tactics, so that, in the opinion of these people, no distinction whatsoever can be drawn between these two trends.
This is a great mistake.
We believe that the Anarchists are real enemies of Marxism. Accordingly, we also hold that a real struggle must be waged against real enemies.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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