Fred Hoyle idézet
Születési dátum: 24. június 1915
Halál dátuma: 20. augusztus 2001
Sir Fred Hoyle angol kozmológus, matematikus-csillagász. Sci-fi regényeket, novellákat, tudományos műveket és rádióműsorokat is írt. Ő adta a „Nagy Bumm” nevet az ősrobbanás elméletének, amit elutasított, mert az állandó állapotú Világegyetemben hitt.Az ő vezetésével fogalmazta meg a csillagok nukleoszintézisének elméletét a Burbidge, Burbidge , Fowler és Hoyle csoport 1957-ben. A három alfa folyamatot az ő gondolata alapján ismerték fel. Hoyle kérésére Fowler kísérletileg megvizsgálta a C-12 keletkezésének lehetőségét.
A 20. század egyik legnagyobb hatású kozmológusaként kiszámította, hogyan alakulnak ki a nehezebb elemek a csillagokban.
Filozófiai okokból elégedetlen volt az ősrobbanás koncepciójával, ezért 1948-ban két munkatársával részletesen is kidolgozta az állandó állapotú világegyetem modelljét, amit eredetileg Albert Einstein fogalmazott meg 1930-ban. Elméletét azonban nem sikerült bizonyítékokkal alátámasztania, még a módosított, ún. quasi-steady state, vagyis „majdnem stacionárius állapotú” világegyetem elméletét sem
Idézetek Fred Hoyle
„Amikor fiatal voltam, az idősek egy fiatal felháborító alaknak néztek; most, hogy megöregedtem, a fiatalok úgy néznek rám, mint egy felháborító idős alakra.“
Eredeti: Scientific American, 1995. március
Eredeti: "Sayings of the Week", Observer, 1979. szeptember 9.
„To achieve anything really worthwhile in research it is necessary to go against the opinions of one's fellows. To do so successfully, not merely becoming a crackpot, requires fine judgement, especially on long-term issues that cannot be settled quickly. …To hold popular opinion is cheap, costing nothing in reputation, whereas to accept that there is evidence pointing oppositely… is to risk scientific tar and feathers. Yet not to take the risk is to make certain that, if something new is really there, you won't be the one to find it.“
Home Is Where the Wind Blows: Chapters from a Cosmologist's Life (1994) p. 235.
„Between the ages of five and nine I was almost perpetually at war with the educational system. …As soon as I learned from my mother that there was there was a place called school that I must attend willy-nilly—a place where you were obliged to think about matters prescribed by a 'teacher,' not about matters decided by yourself—I was appalled.“
The Small World of Fred Hoyle: an Autobiography (1986)
„I do not see any sense in continuing to skirmish on a battlefield where I can never hope to win. The Cambridge system is effectively designed to prevent one ever establishing a directed policy — key decisions can be upset by ill-informed and politically motivated committees. To be effective in this system one must for ever be watching one's colleagues, almost like a Robespierre spy system. If one does so, then of course little time is left for any real science.“
As quoted by Bernard Lovell in Hoyle's obituary in The Guardian (23 August 2001) http://www.guardian.co.uk/obituaries/story/0,3604,540961,00.html
„It has often been said that, if the human species fails to make a go of it here on the Earth, some other species will take over the running. In the sense of developing intelligence this is not correct. We have or soon will have, exhausted the necessary physical prerequisites so far as this planet is concerned. With coal gone, oil gone, high-grade metallic ores gone, no species however competent can make the long climb from primitive conditions to high-level technology. This is a one-shot affair. If we fail, this planetary system fails so far as intelligence is concerned.“
Quoted in "The Olduvai Theory: Sliding Towards a Post-Industrial Stone Age" by Richard C. Duncan http://dieoff.org/page125.htm
Originally from Fred Hoyle, Of Men and Galaxies (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1964).
„The creationist is a sham religious person who, curiously, has no true sense of religion. In the language of religion, it is the facts we observe in the world around us that must be seen to constitute the words of God. Documents, whether the Bible, Qur'an or those writings that held such force for Velikovsky, are only the words of men. To prefer the words of men to those of God is what one can mean by blasphemy. This, we think, is the instinctive point of view of most scientists who, curiously again, have a deeper understanding of the real nature of religion than have the many who delude themselves into a frenzied belief in the words, often the meaningless words, of men. Indeed, the lesser the meaning, the greater the frenzy, in something like inverse proportion.“
Our Place in the Cosmos (1993), p. 14
„We are inescapably the result of a long heritage of learning, adaptation, mutation and evolution, the product of a history which predates our birth as a biological species and stretches back over many thousand millennia… Going further back, we share a common ancestry with our fellow primates; and going still further back, we share a common ancestry with all other living creatures and plants down to the simplest microbe. The further back we go, the greater the difference from external appearances and behavior patterns which we observe today.“
Lifecloud: The Origin of Life in the Universe (1978), p. 15
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„Once a photograph of the Earth, taken from outside, is available, we shall, in an emotional sense, acquire an additional dimension... Once let the sheer isolation of the Earth become plain to every man, whatever his nationality or creed, and a new idea as powerful as any in history will be let loose.“
„I do not believe that anything really worthwhile will come out of the exploration of the slag heap that constitutes the surface of the moon…Nobody should imagine that the enormous financial budget of NASA implies that astronomy is now well supported.“
Galaxies, Nuclei, and Quasars, Harper and Row, New York, 1965
„We now come to the question of applying the observational tests to earlier theories. These theories were based on the hypothesis that all the matter in the universe was created in one big bang at a particular time in the remote past. It now turns out that… all such theories are in conflict with observational requirements.“
BBC radio broadcast, March 28, 1949. http://www.joh.cam.ac.uk/library/special_collections/hoyle/exhibition/radio/ Reprinted in April 1949 in The Listener, a BBC magazine.
„Life cannot have had a random beginning … The trouble is that there are about two thousand enzymes, and the chance of obtaining them all in a random trial is only one part in 1040,000, an outrageously small probability that could not be faced even if the whole universe consisted of organic soup.“
Fred Hoyle and N. Chandra Wickramasinghe, Evolution from Space (London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1981)
„When I was young, the old regarded me as an outrageous young fellow, and now that I'm old the young regard me as an outrageous old fellow.“
As quoted in Scientific American (March 1995)
„Once we see, however, that the probability of life originating at random is so utterly minuscule as to make it absurd, it becomes sensible to think that the favorable properties of physics on which life depends are in every respect deliberate …. It is therefore almost inevitable that our own measure of intelligence must reflect … higher intelligences … even to the limit of God … such a theory is so obvious that one wonders why it is not widely accepted as being self-evident. The reasons are psychological rather than scientific.“
Fred Hoyle and N. Chandra Wickramasinghe, Evolution from Space (London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1981), pp. 141, 144, 130
„The chance that higher life forms might have emerged in this way is comparable with the chance that a tornado sweeping through a junk-yard might assemble a Boeing 747 from the materials therein.“
Hoyle on evolution, Nature, Vol. 294, No. 5837 (November 12, 1981), p. 105
„The notion that not only the biopolymer but the operating program of a living cell could be arrived at by chance in a primordial organic soup here on the Earth is evidently nonsense of a high order.“
The Big Bang in Astronomy, New Scientist, Vol. 92, No. 1280 (November 19, 1981), p. 527
"Sayings of the Week", The Observer (9 September 1979)