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Carl von Linné

Date de naissance: 23. mai 1707
Date de décès: 10. janvier 1778

Carl Linnæus, puis Carl von Linné après son anoblissement, né le 23 mai 1707 à Råshult et mort le 10 janvier 1778 à Uppsala, est un naturaliste suédois qui a posé les bases du système moderne de la nomenclature binominale. Considérant, selon la formule d'Edward Coke « Nomina si nescis, perit cognitio rerum » , que la connaissance scientifique nécessite de nommer les choses, il a répertorié, nommé et classé de manière systématique l'essentiel des espèces vivantes connues à son époque en s'appuyant sur ses propres observations comme sur celles de son réseau de correspondants. La nomenclature qu'il établit alors, et la hiérarchisation des classifications en classe, genre, ordre, niveau, espèce et variété, s'impose au XIXe siècle comme la nomenclature standard.

Père du concept de biodiversité par son identification de près de 6 000 espèces végétales et 4 400 animales, sa classification s'inscrit dans un contexte historique plurimillénaire où la notion d'évolution des espèces n'existe pas encore, depuis la classification du philosophe grec Aristote, d'une part, et la doctrine biblique créationniste, d'autre part. Elle est donc fixiste et constitue le modèle dominant du rapport de proximité anatomique entre les espèces jusqu'au XIXe siècle. La classification intègrera le concept d'évolution à la suite de Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck fondateur du transformisme.

Citations Carl von Linné

„I have been not been able to discover any character by which man can be distinguished from the ape“

—  Carl Linnaeus

Fauna Suecica (1746) as quoted by Jeffrey H. Schwartz, Sudden Origins: Fossils, Genes, and the Emergence of Species (1999)
Contexte: As a natural historian according to the principles of science, up to the present time I have been not been able to discover any character by which man can be distinguished from the ape; for there are somewhere apes which are less hairy than man, erect in position, going just like him on two feet, and recalling the human species by the use they make of their hands and feet, to such an extent, that the less educated travellers have given them out as a kind of man.

„I think fit to enumerate man among the quadrapeds“

—  Carl Linnaeus

Fauna Suecica (1746) as quoted by Jeffrey H. Schwartz, Sudden Origins: Fossils, Genes, and the Emergence of Species (1999)
Contexte: No one has any right to be angry with me, if I think fit to enumerate man among the quadrapeds. Man is neither a stone nor a plant, but an animal, for such is his way of living and moving; nor is he a worm, for then he would have only one foot; nor an insect, for then he would have antennae; nor a fish, for he has no fins; nor a bird, for he has no wings. Therefore, he is a quadraped, had a mouth like that of other quadrapeds, and finally four feet, on two of which he goes, and uses the other two for prehensive purposes.

„If the names are unknown knowledge of the things also perishes.“

—  Carl Linnaeus, livre Philosophia Botanica

Philosophia Botanica (1751), aphorism 210. Trans. Frans A. Stafleu, Linnaeus and the Linnaeans: The Spreading of their Ideas in Systematic Botany, 1735-1789 (1971), 80.

„I admire the wisdom of the Creator, which manifests itself in so many various modes, and demonstrate it to others.“

—  Carl Linnaeus

As quoted in A life of Linnaeus https://archive.org/stream/lifeoflinnaeus00brigiala#page/122/mode/2up/search/blessed (1858), by J. Van Voorst & Cecilia Lucy Brightwell, London. p. 123.: I render thanks to the Almighty, who has ordered my lot so that I live at this day; and live, too, happier than the King of Persia. I think myself thus blessed because in this academic garden I am principal. This is my Rhodus, or, rather, my Elysium; here I enjoy the spoils of the East and the West, and, if I mistake not, that which far excels in beauty the garments of the Babylonians and the porcelain of China. Here I behold myself the might and wisdom of the Great Creator, in the works by which He reveals Himself, and show them unto others."
Contexte: I thank Providence who has guided my destinies, that I now live; nay, that I live happier than a king of Persia. You know, fathers and fellow-citizens, that I am wholly occupied with this academical garden; that it is my Rhodus, or rather my Elysium. There I possess all the spoils of the east and the west which I wished for; and which, in my belief, are far more precious than the silken garments of the Babylonians, and the porcelain vases of the Chinese. There I receive and convey instruction. There I admire the wisdom of the Creator, which manifests itself in so many various modes, and demonstrate it to others.

„God infinite, omniscient and omnipotent, woke me up and I was amazed! I have read some clues through His created things, in all of which, is His will; even in the smallest things, and the most minute! How much wisdom! What an inscrutable perfection!“

—  Carl Linnaeus, livre Systema Naturae

Imperium Naturæ, 12th edition.
Deum sempiternum, immensum, omniscium, omnipotentem expergefactus a tergo transeuntem vidi et obstupui! legi aliquot Ejus vestigia per creata rerum, in quibus omnibus, etiam in minimis, ut fere nullis, quæ Vis! quanta Sapientia! quam inextricabilis Perfectio!
Systema Naturae

„The observer of nature see, with admiration, that "the whole world is full of the glory of God."“

—  Carl Linnaeus

Lachesis Lapponica: Or, A Tour in Laplan http://books.google.es/books?id=vQ5XAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=es#v=onepage&q&f=false (1811), translated by James Edward Smith, Lulea, p. 238.

„From my youth you have taught me, O God, and now I would like to proclaim Your Wonders“

—  Carl Linnaeus, livre Systema Naturae

Praise at the end of the index. In Systema Naturae (1758), from Psalm 71.
Original in Latin: "Docuisti me Deus a juventute mea, & usque nunc pronunciabo Mirabilia Tua"
Systema Naturae

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„Your works are wonderful, O Lord! In the multitude of Thy virtues you measure those who despise you.“

—  Carl Linnaeus, livre Systema Naturae

Praise at the end of the introduction. In Systema Naturae (1758).
Original in Latin: "Terribilia sunt opera Tua, o Domine! In multitude virtutis Tuae, Te metientur contemptores Tui."
Systema Naturae

„We say there are as many genera as there are similarly constituted fructifications of different natural species.“

—  Carl Linnaeus, livre Fundamenta Botanica

Fundamenta Botanica (1736).
Original in Latin: Genera tot dicimus, quot similes constructae fructifications proserunt diversae Species naturales

„The Earth's Creation is the glory of God, as seen from the works of Nature by Man alone.“

—  Carl Linnaeus, livre Systema Naturae

In the Introitus (Preface) from his late editions.
Original in Latin: "Finis Creationis telluris est gloria Dei ex opere Naturae per Hominem solum"
Variant translation: "The purpose of Creation is the glory of God, as can be seen from the works in nature by man alone."
Systema Naturae

„Every genus is natural, created as such in the beginning, hence not to be rashly split up or stuck together by whim or according to anyone's theory.“

—  Carl Linnaeus, livre Systema Naturae

Systema naturae (1735) (quoted in Ramsbottom 1938:197)
Original in Latin: Genus omne est naturale, in primordio tale creatum, hinc pro libitu & secundem cujuscimque theoriam non proterve discindendum aut conglutinandum.
Systema Naturae

„Great is our God, and great is His power, and his strength is immeasurable“

—  Carl Linnaeus, livre Systema Naturae

In the dedication from his 12th edition.
Original in Latin: "Magnus est DEUS noster, & magna est potentia Ejus, & potentia Ejus non est numerus."
Systema Naturae

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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